Security Orchestration and Automation (SOAR) Playbook

Your practical guide to implementing a SOAR solution

Introduction

Security orchestration and automation helps teams improve their security posture and create efficiency—without sacrificing control of important security and IT processes. This playbook highlights some of the most common use cases for security orchestration and automation, as well as useful tips on how to get started.

Getting Started with Automation

Before you look for a security orchestration and automation solution, a good place to start is defining the pain points your organization needs to solve. Consider the following:

  • Does your security team get too many alerts to handle effectively and in a timely fashion?
  • Is your team suffering from symptoms of burnout?
  • Do you have trouble hiring and/or retaining security talent?
  • Does your team spend an inordinate amount of time gathering and analyzing information?
  • Is your mean time to respond to a threat getting worse?

Next, it’s important to define your most common use cases, or the tasks your team members spend a lot of time completing. For example, some companies would see immediate benefits by automating the handling of malware incidents because it’s the biggest problem area for them. Other companies would benefit by orchestrating threat hunting and data enrichment tasks to better manage an increasing volume of threats and provide more actionable context to the analysts.

Knowing which use cases you can solve for with orchestration and automation—and then prioritizing those that can bring immediate value—will help you narrow down to find the right solution for your fastest time to value. Read on to learn about the most common automation use cases and workflows.

Phishing Investigations

Phishing remains the most common attack vector behind successful breaches. However, investigating phishing emails involves time-consuming, manual tasks such as investigating and detonating attachments, checking URLs, or following up on suspicious requests for sensitive information. Orchestration and automation solutions can execute tasks like these behind the scenes while your team works on the rest of your investigation and response, ensuring the situation is handled effectively and efficiently while accelerating response time. Outside of the investigations, you can also build workflows to automate remediation steps for when a phishing email is identified.

Scan attachments and URLs

Use plugins for safe browsing, sandboxes, and more to contain and investigate suspicious attachments and check suspicious URLs.

Workflows to identify threats

Leverage workflows to analyze email URLs and file attachments using multiple intelligence sources. Add steps to output reports detailing each indicator identified.

Designate decision points

After the routine scans and investigations have occurred, configure workflows to trigger a decision point on how best to proceed. Examples include marking as verified phish, automatically posting a message alerting others in your organization to the phishing threat via Slack, and other actions.

According to the Verizon Data Breach Digest, phishing attacks play a role in 92% of security breaches.

Sample Workflow | Phishing Investigations

Provisioning and Deprovisioning Users

User permission management is a critical process that all organizations should be able to complete quickly and effectively in order to respond to security threats. The unfortunate reality is that most companies can’t keep up. Security orchestration and automation can eliminate the burden of manually managing user accounts in a variety of use cases, from provisioning and deprovisioning users, to remediation in the event of an incident.

Provisioning new accounts

Different employees require different access levels to various tools and systems within your organization. Easily orchestrate tools such as Okta or Active Directory together, and kick off automation regarding designated user accounts.

Deprovisioning departing employees

No matter the reason why an employee is leaving, it’s a security best practice to remove access to their account as quickly as possible. When an employee leaves, security and IT teams can immediately deactivate the account via a single automated workflow.

Shutting the [access] doors

User accounts are commonly exploited in phishing attacks. In the event of an incident, automatically deprovision affected user accounts, remove user access from key systems, and revoke permissions as needed until the threat is contained.

Popular Plugins: AWS IAM, AD/LDAP, Okta, Duo, JIRA , GitHub, Workday

 

Sample Workflows|Provisioning Users

Sample Workflows|Deprovisioning Users

Malware Containment

Security teams are bogged down by an overabundance of ransomware, viruses, spyware, and more. Automate the investigation and containment of malware before it does significant damage to your network.

Identify malicious activity

When dealing with malware, it’s important to know the signs to look for and how to stop malware in a timely manner to reduce the spread of infection. Automate processes to identify indicators like misspelled process names or abnormal log activity.

Investigate the threat

When malware is detected, leverage workflows to analyze it using plugins from today’s leading malware analysis solutions and common sandbox tools, such as Cuckoo. You’ll be able to investigate malicious files in a safe space, before they get into your network.

Containment and removal

All malware will require some type of containment/removal action. Leverage automation to identify the affected users and assets, leaving decision points for security practitioners to remove the necessary user accounts, isolate the malware, or disconnect machines from the network.

POPULAR PLUG-INS: VirusTotal, Hybrid Analysis, Cuckoo, Palo Alto Wildfire, VMRay, Cortex, JIRA

 

Sample Workflow|Malware Containment

Alert Enrichment

The SOC at an enterprise-level organization owns an average of 75 different security tools. Bouncing between tools when SIEM alerts roll in every day is mind-numbing work that disguises the value of Tier 1 analysts. Orchestration and automation solutions can help you accelerate detection by enriching the quality of the security alerts you receive and automatically weeding out many false positives, giving your team more time and greater context to tackle the actual threats.

Leave the heavy-lifting to the machines

Today’s security teams are receiving an average of 12,000 security alerts per day. With your security tools automatically gathering and compiling relevant context about a security event, your team can switch their focus to analysis and response instead of spending exorbitant amounts of time manually collecting data.

Reduce the noise

Alert fatigue is real. Optimize your operations by automating your most repetitive tasks. The result? False positives are vetted out quicker and threats are dealt with faster through automation of enrichment tasks, investigation, and more.

Intel to act efficiently

Automatically enrich your security alerts with important information, such as geo-IP lookups, domain analysis, malware detonation, and more. Orchestrate your favorite threat intelligence platforms, or use a variety of free and open source tools to ensure your team is equipped with the context they need to take action.

POPULAR PLUG-INS: WhoIS, AbuseIPDB, DomainTools, FreeGeoIP, GeoIP2 Precision, Snort Labs IP Reputation, Powershell, Python

44% of security alerts go uninvestigated due to the overwhelming amount of information received by security analysts. Source: Cisco

Sample Workflow|Alert Enrichment

ChatOps: Distributed Alerting

For today’s modern SOC, time is paramount when it comes to KPIs. Teams are always striving to reduce the time between security alert generation and resolution to a theoretical null. First popularized by the security team at Slack, a Distributed Alerting strategy avoids alert fatigue and staffing issues in the SOC by immediately bringing up alerts into the Slack instance of the person who generated it. Augmented with multi-factor authentication (MFA), analysts spend less time dealing with multiple alerts and more time triaging true positives due to a better signal-to-noise ratio.

Streamline business operations

Trigger actions to push comments to solutions like JIRA or Slack. With your security ecosystem set up to deliver alerts,incident notifications, and other data via your existing tools, security operations become more streamlined, collaborative, and efficient.

Two-way flow of information

Automation can deliver alerts that come in from your security tools straight into your chat applications and delegate tasks back to other connected tools, making communication and case management bi-directional.

Go mobile

Take your work on the go. ChatOps integrations allow your team to maintain maximum uptime without having to be physically present in the SOC to keep your organization safe.

 

Sample Workflow| ChatOps: Distributed Workflow

Threat Hunting

Threat hunting is time consuming and demands a highly technical skill set that most organizations, for better or worse, have to consider a luxury. According to a recent SANS Institute study, only 31% of organizations have staff dedicated to hunting threats. But being proactive in this area can enable your analysts to better uncover and defend against complex advanced persistent threats (APTs)—the attacks that are almost guaranteed to succeed and that, with a massive dwell time, allow attackers to wreak widespread havoc. Lower the barrier to hunting and bolster your team’s ability to compete with today’s most-capable adversaries by automating processes around identifying suspicious malware, domain, and other indicators.

Operationalize disparate data sets

Hunting is not just time-intensive; it’s also unbounded. The more data sets you are able to analyze, the more thorough your proactive search for compromise will be. With orchestration, you can easily add additional tools to your data set without adding substantial time to your hunt cycle.

Automate repeatable tasks

By automating the ongoing tasks associated with threat hunting, such as recurring scans, your team will have more time to do what they do best: finding and thwarting the bad guys. Bring team members into this process strategically for maximum efficiency.

Notify and respond faster

Create and kick off designated response workflows based on the type of threat you’ve discovered. This ensures that you follow proper protocol, your stakeholders are notified as quickly as possible, and that everyone works from the same set of data for a complete end-to-end investigation.

Cybercriminals spend an average of 191 days inside a network before being discovered. Source: SecurityIntelligence

Sample Workflow|Threat Hunting

Patching and Remediation

Security teams today face more vulnerabilities in their environment than they can realistically remediate on their own. The result? A mounting backlog, piling up to a point where issues start slipping through the cracks, leaving you more vulnerable if certain actions aren’t taken in a timely manner. A SOAR solution should integrate with your existing tools to orchestrate vulnerability management processes from notification to remediation, so you can ensure critical issues are being addressed with every security advisory that comes in—while keeping human decision points where most critical. Automate actions to scan, find patches, verify remediation, and more.

Monitor advisory lists

Coordinating vendor vulnerability response used to be a manual process requiring multiple stakeholders. With an automation solution, you can build workflows to automatically monitor advisory lists via RSS feed plugins, and set up decisions and action points as needed.

Notify stakeholders

When a vulnerability needs to be addressed, automatically trigger the creation of service tickets via integrations with leading solutions like JIRA and ServiceNow.

Meet compliance drivers

Wrangling all stakeholders and ensuring necessary tasks happen within an SLA timeframe is a time-consuming project in itself. Automation enables you to respond efficiently and within required timeframes, ensuring vulnerabilities don’t fall through the cracks.

POPULAR PLUG-INS: Microsoft SCCM, IBM BigFix, Metasploit, JIRA, ServiceNow

 

Sample Workflow|Patching and Remediation

Simplify Your Security with InsightConnect

InsightConnect is a security orchestration and automation solution that enables your team to accelerate and streamline time-intensive processes with little to no code. With 270+ plugins to connect your tools and easily customizable connect-and-go workflows, you’ll free up your team to tackle other challenges, while still leveraging human decision points when it’s most critical. With significant time savings and productivity gains across overall security operations, you’ll go from overwhelmed to operating at maximum efficiency in no time.

Want to learn more about Rapid7 Automation? Check out our Automation Solution Brief.

About Rapid7

Rapid7 (Nasdaq: RPD) is advancing security with visibility, analytics, and automation delivered through our Insight cloud. Our solutions simplify the complex, allowing security teams to work more effectively with IT and development to reduce vulnerabilities, monitor for malicious behavior, investigate and shut down attacks, and automate routine tasks. Customers around the globe rely on Rapid7 technology, services, and research to improve security outcomes and securely advance their organizations. For more information, visit our website, check out our blog, or follow us on Twitter.