Git is distributed revision control system. `git log` can display commits in an arbitrary format using its `--format` specifiers. This functionality is also exposed to `git archive` via the `export-subst` gitattribute. When processing the padding operators, there is a integer overflow in `pretty.c::format_and_pad_commit()` where a `size_t` is stored improperly as an `int`, and then added as an offset to a `memcpy()`. This overflow can be triggered directly by a user running a command which invokes the commit formatting machinery (e.g., `git log --format=...`). It may also be triggered indirectly through git archive via the export-subst mechanism, which expands format specifiers inside of files within the repository during a git archive. This integer overflow can result in arbitrary heap writes, which may result in arbitrary code execution. The problem has been patched in the versions published on 2023-01-17, going back to v2.30.7. Users are advised to upgrade. Users who are unable to upgrade should disable `git archive` in untrusted repositories. If you expose git archive via `git daemon`, disable it by running `git config --global daemon.uploadArch false`.