Last updated at Fri, 09 Feb 2024 20:49:55 GMT


The Data which is encrypted by symmetric key method is called Data Encryption Standard (DES). It was prepared by IBM Team in 1974 and declared as national standard in 1977. Government was also using cryptography, especially in diplomatic communication and military. Without cryptography it’s difficult to interpret military communication. Cryptography was also used in commercial sector. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) was also working on DES. FIPS was integrated with computer security program within its relevant institution. In structured standards development process Data Encryption Standard has been a forerunner.


Data Encryption Standard is also incorporated in various communication channels. For instance, the communications take place between an automatic teller machine (ATM) and computer. Messages are sending to computer by ATM, then computer replies ATM with certain messages, which contain secret information regarding account balance of the individual, through which withdrawal occurs. If these important messages were unprotected, then thief can easily tap these messages and get account information leading to illegal transactions. Most of the multi-national companies and government are dependent on electronic means of information transmission. As methods of information collection and distribution are totally changed, there is huge increase in its volume and speed due to emerging communication technologies and latest computing machines. As electronic technology is growing rapidly due to which electronic surveillance and interception is not too much expensive anymore and it is also accessible to many buyers.


DES works by utilizing the identical key to encrypt and decrypt a message, so that the sender and receiver should know and utilize the identical private key. When the go-to, symmetric key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data, DES has been replaced by the new secure Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. Initially developed by the researchers at IBM in early 1970’s, DES was acquired by the U.S. government as an formal Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) in 1977 for the encryption of commercial and sensitive yet uncatalogued government computer data. It was the very first encryption algorithm accepted by the U.S. government for public declaration. This ensured that DES was rapidly acquired by industries like financial services, where the requirement for strong encryption is at peak. The clarity of DES also saw it utilized in a broad diversity of embedded systems, smart cards, SIM cards and network devices requiring encryption like modems, set top boxes and routers.


The 64 bit message undertakes a permutation IP to generate two 32 bit messages halves m0 and m1. Then we evaluate the 32 bit quantify f(k(1), m1), and XOR that quantity with m0 to generate m2. We use this advanced quantity m2 to evaluate f(k(2), m2), and XOR that quantity with m1 to generate m3. We pursue in a like fashion until m16 and m17 have been evaluated. These two messages halves are exchanged and then subjected to the permutation IP-1, to generate the ciphertext c.

Security Measures

Administrative security must be incorporated before the use of encryption and it should be integrated with the methods of key handling when implementation of encryption occurs. In the computer systems physical security is necessary. When using encryption for protecting encryption equipment extra requirements should be satisfied. In an effective cryptographic system encryption equipment should be implemented. There were two different sections, specifications and announcement. Encryption is necessary to use within an agency and after the analysis of in-depth risk is completed. Under unclassified data, if encryption protection is necessary in that case encryption hardware must be obtained when Federal Information Processing Standard complies with it. In specification portion encryption and decryption of data occurs. However, Announcement portion delivers administrative information. It is necessary to observe that messages are selected plaintext. On own machine arranging than computations, generally this is too difficult. Against key exhaustion and differential cryptanalysis, iterated encryption increases the strength of DES. The IBM team was also aware of powerful cryptanalytic tool, that was useful against various schemes and this kind of information can affect national security. Very complex algorithm is specified in DES. It is integrated with cryptographic algorithm that facilitate with complex high level security.


Data Encryption Standard which was designed by IBM. Because of its unique design, selected plaintext was required on commercial scale for differential cryptanalysis attack against DES. For computer data, high level of cryptographic protection was provided by federal standard which is publically available. In development process public interest has also been demonstrated. The devices will be supplied by the private industry, but both government and private sector will be the user of the devices. Intelligence community and private individuals were also integrated, in order to make its implementation more productive for its relevant task. The involvement of industry, government and academia made the standard easier to integrate with all kinds of dimensions. A cooperative standard program can satisfy the needs by supporting its subsequent efforts. To make computers more effective and secure by the efforts and support of individuals and organizations.