Last updated at Thu, 25 Jan 2024 14:05:30 GMT

Is there a defined ecosystem, similar to what we encountered with the Internet of Things (IoT), that can be charted out as it relates to smart city technology and its security implications?

While evaluating IoT I struggled with defining what IoT is. I found that there were varying definitions out there, but none that helped me fully understand what constitutes IoT and how to approach evaluating its security posture. To solve that dilemma in my mind and to better be able to discuss it with vendors and consumers I finally landed on the concept that IoT is often better defined as a series of traits that can be used to explain it, its structure, and better understand the components and their interaction with each other. This concept and approach also allowed me to properly map out all of the interlinking mechanisms as it relates to security testing of the IoT technology's full ecosystem.

Looking at it from this perspective we see that Smart Cities leverage IoT technology and concepts at its core but in many cases with a much more defined relationship to data. With this in mind, I have started looking at the various components that make up Smart Cities, abstracting out their specific purposes, with the goal of having a model to help better understand the various security concerns as we plan for our Smart City future.

Through general observation we can see that Smart City solutions consist of the following five general areas:

Embedded technology

  • Sensors
  • Actuators
  • Aggregators & Edge or Fog appliances

Management and control

  • Client-side application
  • Cloud application
  • APIs
  • Server application

Data storage

  • Cloud storage
  • On-premises storage
  • Edge or Fog storage

Data access

  • Cloud application
  • Client-side application
  • Server-side application


  • Ethernet
  • WiFi (802.11abgn)
  • Radio frequency (RF) ( BLE, Zigbee, Z-wave, LoRa, etc.…)
  • Cellular communication ( GSM, LTE, 3,4,5G)

Mapping these various components to a specific smart city solutions ecosystem, we can better establish the relationship between all the components in that solution. This in turn allows us to improve our threat modeling processes by including those interrelationships. Also, similar to general IoT security testing, understanding the interconnected relationships allows us to take a more holistic approach to security testing.

The typical approach of testing each component only as a stand-alone entity is always a short-sighted approach and misses the mark when identifying attack vectors and associated risk that often come to light only when security testing takes into consideration the interaction of these components. This approach leads us to always ask the question: what happens to the security posture of one set of components if there is a security failure in another set of components? Also, the holistic approach helps us better map the security risk levels across the entire ecosystem. Just because a low-risk condition is found in a single item does not mean that the risk is not compounded into a higher risk category due to some interaction within other components.

So, in conclusion, the solution to establishing a solid security testing response for Smart City technologies is to map out the entire ecosystem of the solution that is being designed and deployed. Define a solid understanding of the various components and their interaction with each other; then, conduct threat modeling to determine the possible risks and threats that are expected to come against the smart city solutions.